SOCIAL SUPPORT OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH LEUKEMIA

Nursyamsiyah Nursyamsiyah


DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.792

Abstract


Background: Leukemia in children is not only a stressor for children but also all family members, especially for parents. Caring for children with leukemia relies on the importance of social support to overcome various crises caused by the disease and its treatment. However, parents' perceptions of social support can be affected by several factors. Thus, assessment of factors that impact social support of parents of children with leukemia is needed.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the social support perceived by parents of children with leukemia and examine the relationship between perceived social support and characteristics of parents and children.

Methods: A quantitative study with cross-sectional approach in 104 parents of children with leukemia aged 3-18 years. Social support was measured using Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman Test.

Results: Total scale score of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) of parents of children with leukemia was 5.74 ± 0.48. The highest subscale score was on family support (6.06 ± 0.46). There were statistically significant differences in MSPSS total scores based on parental education and family income (p <0.05).

Conclusion: Nurses play an important role to provide support for parents who have children with leukemia, especially in risky families. Support that nurses can provide among parents of children with leukemia is by giving information about disease and care, empowering the family, and finding support outside the family, such as the source of financial support related to treatment, utilization of cancer foundations, and supporting group and others.

Keywords


children with leukemia; parent; social support

Full Text:

PDF

References


Altay, N., Kilicarslan, E., Sarı, Ç., & Kisecik, Z. (2014). Determination of social support needs and expectations of mothers of children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 31(3), 147-153. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043454213520471

American Cancer Society. (2016). Leukemia in children. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-in-children.html.

Bayat, M., Erdem, E., & Gül Kuzucu, E. (2008). Depression, anxiety, hopelessness, and social support levels of the parents of children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 25(5), 247-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043454208321139

Björk, M., Nordström, B., Wiebe, T., & Hallström, I. (2011). Returning to a changed ordinary life–families' lived experience after completing a child's cancer treatment. European Journal of Cancer Care, 20(2), 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2354.2009.01159.x

Björk, M., Wiebe, T., & Hallström, I. (2009). An everyday struggle—Swedish families' lived experiences during a child's cancer treatment. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 24(5), 423-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2008.01.082

Cousino, M. K., & Hazen, R. A. (2013). Parenting stress among caregivers of children with chronic illness: a systematic review. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38(8), 809-828. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jst049

Crosier, T., Butterworth, P., & Rodgers, B. (2007). Mental health problems among single and partnered mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(1), 6-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-006-0125-4

Earle, E., Clarke, S., Eiser, C., & Sheppard, L. (2007). ‘Building a new normality’: mothers’ experiences of caring for a child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(2), 155-160. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00638.x

Fletcher, P. C., Schneider, M. A., & Harry, R. J. (2010). How do I cope? Factors affecting mothers’ abilities to cope with pediatric cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 27(5), 285-298. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043454209360839

Glazer, S. (2006). Social support across cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(5), 605-622.

Haber, M. G., Cohen, J. L., Lucas, T., & Baltes, B. B. (2007). The relationship between self‐reported received and perceived social support: A meta‐analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1-2), 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-007-9100-9

Hastuti, A. (2019). Jumlah pasien kanker yang dirawat inap di RSHS Bandung meningkat tajam [The number of cancer patients hospitalized in RSHS Bandung has increased sharply]. Retrieved from http://rri.co.id/bandung/post/berita/629058/seputar_jabar/jumlah_pasien_kanker_yang_dirawat_inap_di_rshs_bandung_meningkat_tajam.html

Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2013). Essential of Pediatric Nursing (9th ed.). St. Louise Missouri: Elsevier.

Kaakinen, J. W., Duff, V. G., Coehlo, D. P., & Hanson, S. M. H. (2010). Family health nursing (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.

Kisić, T., Konstantinidis, N., Kolarović, J., & Kaćanski, N. (2012). Importance of psychological support for families of children with cancer. Medicinski Pregled, 65(5-6), 223-227. https://doi.org/10.2298/mpns1206223k

Larsen, H. B., Heilmann, C., Johansen, C., & Adamsen, L. (2013). Socially disadvantaged parents of children treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT): Report from a supportive intervention study, Denmark. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 17(3), 302-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2012.08.003

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. (2015). Cancer situation. Jakarta: Data Center and Information, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

Mullins, L. L., Wolfe-Christensen, C., Chaney, J. M., Elkin, T. D., Wiener, L., Hullmann, S. E., . . . Junghans, A. (2010). The relationship between single-parent status and parenting capacities in mothers of youth with chronic health conditions: The mediating role of income. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(3), 249-257. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsq080

Nursalam. (2013). Metodologi penelitian ilmu keperawatan [Nursing research methodology]. Jakarta: Salemba Medika.

Rabbani, A., & Alexander, G. C. (2009). The association between family structure, reports of illness and health care demand for children: evidence from rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, 41(5), 645-659. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0021932009990058

Rosenberg-Yunger, Z. R., Granek, L., Sung, L., Klaassen, R., Dix, D., Cairney, J., & Klassen, A. F. (2013). Single-parent caregivers of children with cancer: factors assisting with caregiving strains. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 30(1), 45-55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043454212471727

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., and Jemal, A. (2017). “Cancer Statistics, 2017”. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 67(1), 7-30. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21387

Sundler, A. J., Hallström, I., Hammarlund, K., & Björk, M. (2013). Living an everyday life through a child’s cancer trajectory: families’ lived experiences 7 years after diagnosis. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 30(6), 293-300. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043454213513837

Wiener, L., Pao, M., Battles, H., Zadeh, S., Patenaude, A. F., Madan-Swain, A., . . . Group, L.-P. S. (2013). Socio-environmental factors associated with lone parenting chronically ill children. Children's Health Care, 42(3), 264-280.

Winahyu, K. M., Hemchayat, M., & Charoensuk, S. (2015). Factors affecting quality of life among family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Indonesia. Journal of Health Research, 29(1), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.14456/jhr.2015.52

Zimet, G. D. Multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS). Retrieved from https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/5119f9_2f88fadcd382463daf5821e8af94a865.pdf

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30-41.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Nursyamsiyah Nursyamsiyah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.