Windy Rakhmawati

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.754


Grounded theory has been utilized in nursing research in order to develop theory from data. Since there are three approaches in the grounded theory methodology that consist of Classic grounded theory, Straussian grounded theory, and Constructivist grounded theory, thus understanding about perspective of each approach is needed. Those approaches have different points of views regarding the philosophical position, role of literature review, and coding process in data analysis. This review provides an understanding about the grounded theory approaches for researchers particularly the novice researchers, and selects an appropriate approach in their study.


Classic grounded theory; Straussian grounded theory; Constructivist grounded theory; literature review

Full Text:



Aldiabat, K. M., & Navenec, L. (2011). Philosophical roots of classical grounded theory: Its foundations in symbolic interactionism. The Qualitative Report, 16(4), 1063-1080.

Birks, M., & Mills, J. (2012). Grounded theory: A practical guide. London: Sage.

Blumer, H. (1986). Symbolic interactionism. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. London: Sage Publications.

Charmaz, K. (2008). Constructing grounded theory. In J. A. Holstein & J. F. Gubrium (Eds.), Handbook of Constructionist research (pp. 397–416). New York: The Guilford Press.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of qualitative research (4th ed.). California: Sage.

Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valey, CA: Sociology Press.

Glaser, B. G. (1992). Basics of grounded theory analysis: Emergence vs. forcing. Mill Valey, CA: Sociology Press.

Glaser, B. G. (1998). Doing grounded theory: Issues and discussions. Mill Valey, CA: Sociology Press.

Glaser, B. G. (2002). Constructivist grounded theory? Paper presented at the Forum qualitative sozialforschung/forum: Qualitative social research.

Glaser, B. G., & Holton, J. (2004). Remodeling grounded theory. Paper presented at the Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Transaction.

Hall, H., Griffiths, D., & McKenna, L. (2013). From Darwin to constructivism: The evolution of grounded theory. Nurse Researcher, 20(3). https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2013.

Kenny, M., & Fourie, R. (2015). Contrasting classic, Straussian, and constructivist grounded theory: methodological and philosophical conflicts. The Qualitative Report, 20(8), 1270-1289.

Lauridsen, E. I., & Higginbottom, G. (2014). The roots and development of constructivist grounded theory. Nurse Researcher, 21(5). https://doi.org/10.7748/nr.21.5.8.e1208

Pascale, C.-M. (2011). Chapter Four: Symbolic Interaction In C.-M. Pascale (Ed.), Cartographies Knowledge: Exploring Qualitative Epistemologies. United States: Sage Publications.

Singh, S., & Estefan, A. (2018). Selecting a grounded theory approach for nursing research. Global qualitative nursing research, 5, 2333393618799571. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333393618799571

Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basic of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basic of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Walls, P., Parahoo, K., & Fleming, P. (2010). The role and place of knowledge and literature in grounded theory. Nurse researcher, 17(4). https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2010.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Windy Rakhmawati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.