Karen Simon Reed

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.714


Background: Cambodia’s nursing profession and nursing education system continue to progress 40 years after destruction by the Khmer Rouge. The author, who has a relationship with a hospital in southern Cambodia, was asked to teach physical assessment techniques to improve patient care.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of culturally congruent physical assessment media on the knowledge-base of Cambodian nurses.

Methods: This article describes two years of an on-going project designed by the author who annually recruits US based BSN nursing students to use the ADDIE model to create and record segments on physical assessment which are posted on a private You Tube channel for the limited English- speaking Cambodian nursing staff. Optional post-tests are administered by the Cambodian hospital’s nursing director.

Results: Test results reflect knowledge gained on cardiac, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal physical assessment skills with means ranging from 73.55% to 95.71%. Physical assessment skills until recently were not taught in Cambodia's nursing programs. Cambodia's nursing profession is advancing and a corresponding skill set including conducting physical assessments is necessary. As a majority of the project participants did not have prior exposure to the material, a pre-test was not provided and participation in post-testing was optional.  The objective was to provide useful professional educational materials at a comfortable language level for the Cambodian nurses using examples which were culturally relevant.

Conclusion: The BSN students successfully developed culturally relevant educational products the Cambodian nurses found useful.


nursing education; Cambodian nursing; cross cultural nursing; international nursing partnerships

Full Text:



Arbour, M., Kaspar, R. W., & Teall, A. M. (2015). Strategies to promote cultural competence in distance education. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 26(4), 436-440. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659614547201

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Branson, R. K., Rayner, G. T., Cox, J. L., Furman, J. P., & King, F. J. (1975). Interservice procedures for instructional systems development. executive summary and model. Florida: Florida State University, Tallahassee Center For Educational Technology.

Cambodian Council of Nurses. (2017). Different education paths (ADN or BSN). Retrieved from http://cambodian councilofnurse.com/different-education-paths-adn-bsn/

Department of Planning & Health Information of the Kingdom of Cambodia. (2016). Health strategic plan 2016-2020: Quality, effective and equitable health services. Retrieved from http://hismohcambodia.org/public/fileupload/carou sel/HSP3-(2016-2020).pdf

George, E., & Meadows‐Oliver, M. (2013). Searching for collaboration in international nursing partnerships: a literature review. International Nursing Review, 60(1), 31-36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-7657.2012.01034.x

Henker, R., Prak, M., & Koy, V. (2015). Development and implementation of cornerstone documents to support nursing practice in Cambodia. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 20(2), 5. https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol20No 02Man05

Hsu, T., Lee-Hsieh, J., Turton, M. A., & Cheng, S. (2014). Using the ADDIE model to develop on-line continuing education courses on caring for nurses in Taiwan. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 45(3), 124-131. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20140219-04

Japanese International Cooperative Association. (2012). Survey on nursing education in the public sector and nursing services at site for clinical practice in Cambodia Retrieved from http://www.jica.go.jp/project/cambodia/ 004/materials/pdf/05_baseline_2012.pdf

Koehn, P. H., Deardorff, D. K., & Bolognese, K. D. (2011). Enhancing international research and development-project activity on university campuses: Insights from US senior international officers. Journal of Studies in International Education, 15(4), 332-350. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1028315310365540

Koy, V. (June, 2012). [Personal communication].

Koy, V. (October, 2018). [Personal communication].

Lasater, K., Upvall, M., Nielsen, A., Prak, M., & Ptachcinski, R. (2012). Global partnerships for professional development: a Cambodian exemplar. Journal of Professional Nursing, 28(1), 62-68. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.profnurs.2011.10.002

Lee, Y. S., Garfield, C., & Kim, H. N. (2012). Self-efficacy theory as a framework for interventions that support parents of NICU infants. Paper presented at the 2012 6th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare (PervasiveHealth) and Workshops.

Leh, S. K., Robb, W. J. W., & Albin, B. (2004). The student/faculty international exchange: Responding to the challenge of developing a global perspective in nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 25(2), 86-90.

Lenz, B. K., & Warner, S. (2011). Global learning experiences during a domestic community health clinical. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(1), 26-29. https://doi.org/ 10.5480/1536-5026-32.1.26

Marrone, S. (2002). The globalization of nursing. Nursing Spectrum, 14(16), 8.

McGrew, L. (1990). Health care in Cambodia. Retrieved from https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/health-care-cambodia

Rummel, R. (1997). Statistics of democide: Genocide and mass murder since 1900. Retrieved from https://www.hawaii. edu/powerkills/NOTE5.HTM

Steefel, L. (2002). Diversity is key to global nursing. Nursing Spectrum, 11(21), 7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Karen Simon Reed

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.