Background: Literature revealed that men tends to use healthcare services much lesser and visit much later, resulting in poor health outcomes. This is often regarded as a way of exhibiting masculinity. In Brunei, there is an increasing number of mortality resulting from the complication of diabetes mellitus, a non-communicable disease, which arguably can be prevented.
Objectives: To explore their health-help seeking behavior and health maintenance pattern of male diabetic patients in Brunei.
Methods: Qualitative research guided by phenomenology research design. COREQ Checklist was used to prepare the report of this study. Individual semi-structured interview on eleven men were conducted from February to November 2018. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically.
Results: Three themes were developed: “Maintaining health to enable the performance of masculine roles”, “Men delay seeking healthcare services”, and “Maintaining control and self reliance in looking after own sick body”.
Conclusion: Health is perceived as important - it enables men to perform their ‘masculine responsibilities’. When men are in ill-health and realized how this could jeopardize their masculine roles, they would actively involve in taking care of their own body. This suggested how masculinity is in fact context –dependent. Level of knowledge and experiences with healthcare services and treatments also influenced men decision in health-help. Despite evidence that suggests how men often decline involvement with health promoting activities and delay seeking health from healthcare professionals, it was found that being able to continue supporting their family act as a legitimate reason for them to access healthcare services.
Armstrong, D. (1995). The rise of surveillance medicine. Sociology of Health & Illness, 17(3), 393-404.
Bateman, J. (1990). An extra source of conflict? Diabetes in adolescence. Professional Nurse (London, England), 5(6), 290-296.
Birt, L., Scott, S., Cavers, D., Campbell, C., & Walter, F. (2016). Member checking: a tool to enhance trustworthiness or merely a nod to validation? Qualitative Health Research, 26(13), 1802-1811.
Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0891243205278639
Courtenay, W. H. (2000). Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health. Social Science & Medicine, 50(10), 1385-1401. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(99)00390-1
Del Mar García‐Calvente, M., Hidalgo‐Ruzzante, N., del Río‐Lozano, M., Marcos‐Marcos, J., Martínez‐Morante, E., Maroto‐Navarro, G., . . . Gil‐García, E. (2012). Exhausted women, tough men: a qualitative study on gender differences in health, vulnerability and coping with illness in Spain. Sociology of Health & Illness, 34(6), 911-926.
Donaldson, M. (1993). What is hegemonic masculinity? Theory and society, 22(5), 643-657.
Emslie, C., Ridge, D., Ziebland, S., & Hunt, K. (2006). Men's accounts of depression: reconstructing or resisting hegemonic masculinity? Social Science & Medicine, 62(9), 2246-2257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed .2005.10.017
Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality: An Introduction (Vol. 1). New York: Vintage Books.
Galdas, P. M., Cheater, F., & Marshall, P. (2005). Men and health help‐seeking behaviour: literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(6), 616-623. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03331.x
Idris, D. R. (2018). Health help seeking behaviour and health care services utilization of Bruneian men: A grounded theory study. (PhD Dissertation). UK: Durham University.
Idris, D. R., Forrest, S., & Brown, S. (2019). Health help‐seeking by men in Brunei Darussalam: masculinities and ‘doing’male identities across the life course. Sociology of Health & Illness. https://doi.org/10. 1111/1467-9566.12885
International Diabetes Federation. (2006). Diabetes atlas (3rd ed.). Brussels: International Diabetes Federation.
King, K. M., King, P. J., Nayar, R., & Wilkes, S. (2017). Perceptions of adolescent patients of the “lived experience” of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 30(1), 23-35. https://doi.org/10.2337/ds15-0041
Lewin, A. B., Heidgerken, A. D., Geffken, G. R., Williams, L. B., Storch, E. A., Gelfand, K. M., & Silverstein, J. H. (2005). The relation between family factors and metabolic control: the role of diabetes adherence. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(2), 174-183. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsj004
Ng, C. J., Tan, H. M., & Low, W. Y. (2008). What do Asian men consider as important masculinity attributes? Findings from the Asian Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) study. Journal of Men's Health, 5(4), 350-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jomh.2008.10.005
Noone, J. H., & Stephens, C. (2008). Men, masculine identities, and health care utilisation. Sociology of Health & Illness, 30(5), 711-725. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2008.01095.x
O’brien, R., Hunt, K., & Hart, G. (2005). ‘It's caveman stuff, but that is to a certain extent how guys still operate’: men's accounts of masculinity and help seeking. Social Science & Medicine, 61(3), 503-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.12.008
Ogrodniczuk, J. S., & Oliffe, J. L. (2011). Men and depression. Canadian Family Physician, 57(2), 153-155.
Pagán, J. A., & Tanguma, J. (2007). Health care affordability and complementary and alternative medicine utilization by adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30(8), 2030-2031. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc07-0433
Pylypa, J. (1998). Power and bodily practice: Applying the work of Foucault to an anthropology of the body. Arizona Anthropologist, 13, 21–36.
Richardson, N. (2004). Getting inside men’ s health. Ireland: Health Promotion Department, South Eastern Health Board.
Robertson, S. (2006). ‘Not living life in too much of an excess’: lay men understanding health and well-being. Health:, 10(2), 175-189. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363459306 061787
Seidler, V. J. (2006). Young men and masculinities: Global cultures and intimate lives. London: Zed books Ltd.
World Health Organization. (2016). Global report on diabetes. Geneva: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.