BARRIERS TO ADHERENCE TO EXPANDED PROGRAM ON IMMUNIZATION AMONG PARENTS IN LANAO DEL NORTE, PHILIPPINES

Geraldine Sabate Ridad


DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.695

Abstract


Background: The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was developed to ensure access of infant and children to recommended vaccines. In the Philippines, nurses are deployed in the community to ensure that children in their assigned units are fully immunized before they reach 1 year old. However, despite the various immunization campaigns, many children still remain unprotected and at-risk to life-threatening vaccine-preventable diseases. Thus, identifying the barriers that have averted parents from adhering to complete and timely immunization is important, most especially to nurses who are the primary program implementers in the community.

Objective: This study chiefly aimed to determine the respondents’ perceived barriers along the aspects of Personal, Geographical and Social Barriers, Beliefs and Myths on Immunization, and Knowledge and Awareness on EPI and their relationship to the respondents’ level of adherence to immunization.

Methods: Descriptive correlational design was used to explore the perceived barriers to immunization and examine its relationship to the respondents’ level of adherence. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was used after being pilot tested to gather data from 352 random respondents.

Results: Using frequency counts, percentages, and weighted arithmetic mean, the results showed that most of the respondents considered only geographical factors as barrier along with social factors. Moreover, it has been found out that respondents lacked knowledge and awareness on the benefits of immunization, the number of vaccines their child needs to receive, site and schedule, side-effects, and contraindications. However, with mean above 2.34 indicated that respondents were informed on the appropriate interventions for side-effects of vaccines, as well as their right to refuse vaccination. The respondents’ over-all level of adherence was moderate.

Conclusion: The identified barriers geographical, social, personal, beliefs and myths on immunization and respondents’ level of knowledge and awareness have influenced respondents’ level of adherence to a moderate level only. Based on the results, health care providers, especially nurses, and other concerned program implementers need to consider and address these barriers when formulating or improving strategies to increase immunization compliance. Lastly, more intentional follow-up campaign drives in spreading information about Expanded Program on Immunization using media and other ways is needed.


Keywords


barriers to immunization; expanded program on immunization; adherence to immunization

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashwill, J. W., & James, S. R. (2008). Nursing Care of Children, Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Singapore: Elsevier-Saunders.

Bacolod City Health Office. (2013). 2013 annual report. Philippines: LDN: BCHO.

Bondy, J. N., Thind, A., Koval, J. J., & Speechley, K. N. (2009). Identifying the determinants of childhood immunization in the Philippines. Vaccine, 27(1), 169-175.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Vaccines & Immunizations. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/index.html

Coreil, J., Augustin, A., Halsey, N. A., & Holt, E. (1994). Social and psychological costs of preventive child health services in Haiti. Social Science & Medicine, 38(2), 231-238.

Cuevas, F. P. L. (2007). Public Health Nursing in the Philippines. Philippines: National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Incorporated.

Department of Health of the Republic of the Philippines. (2011). Expanded Program on Immunization. Retrieved from https://www.doh.gov.ph/expanded-program-on-immunization

Department of Health of the Republic of the Philippines. (2012). Republic Act 10152. Retrieved from https://www.doh.gov.ph/Policies-and-Laws/RA10152

Gesmundo, M. H. (2010). The Basics of Community Health Nursing: a Study Guide for Nursing Students and Local Board Examinees. Philippines: C & E Publishing, Inc.

Harrington, J. W. (2011). Vaccination Refusal: How to Counsel the Vaccine-Hesitant Parent. Retrieved from https://www.consultant360.com/

Klossner, N. J., & Hatfield, N. (2006). Introductory Maternity and Pediatric Nursing. Philippines: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Municipal Health Center of Kolambugan. (2013). 2013 annual report. Philippines: LDN: MHCK.

Municipal Health Center of Linamon. (2013). 2013 annual report. Philippines: LDN: MHCL.

Palangchao, D. D. (2013). Easing the burden of most common vaccine-preventable diseases through the DOH Expanded Program on Immunization. Cordillera Health Voice, 6(2), 4-6.

Qidwai, W., Ali, S. S., & Ayub, S. (2007). Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding immunization among family practice patients. Journal of Dow University of Health Sciences, 1(1).

Schwarz, N. G., Gysels, M., Pell, C., Gabor, J., Schlie, M., Issifou, S., . . . Pool, R. (2009). Reasons for non-adherence to vaccination at mother and child care clinics (MCCs) in Lambarene, Gabon. Vaccine, 27(39), 5371-5375.

Senessie, C., Gage, G. N., & von Elm, E. (2007). Delays in childhood immunization in a conflict area: a study from Sierra Leone during civil war. Conflict and Health, 1(1), 1-14.

Tadesse, H., Deribew, A., & Woldie, M. (2009). Explorative assessment of factors affecting child immunization in Wonago district, Gedeo zone, South Ethiopia. Archives of Medical Science, 5(2), 233-240.

Topuzoğlu, A., Ay, P., Hidiroglu, S., & Gurbuz, Y. (2006). The barriers against childhood immunizations: a qualitative research among socio-economically disadvantaged mothers. The European Journal of Public Health, 17(4), 348-352.

Torres, W. M. I. (2014). Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao Retrieved from https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/RidoTOC.pdf

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. (2018). Situation analysis of children in the philippines: A summary report. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/philippines/UNICEFSituationAnalysisSummary.pdf

World Health Organization. (2009). Epidemiology of the Unimmunized Child Findings from the Grey Literature: same report presented to SAGE. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/ImmBasics_Epid_unimm_Final_v2.pdf

World Health Organization. (2013). Immunization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/topics/immunization/en/


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Belitung Nursing Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.