Background: Menstrual pain can be severe enough to interfere with everyday activities for a few days every month, particularly in activities in homes and schools for late adolescents. Dark chocolate is considered effective in reducing menstrual pain. However, little is known about its effect.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of dark chocolate on menstrual pain in late adolescents.
Methods: This was a true experiment study with randomized pretest-posttest with control group design. This study was conducted from September to November 2016 at the Bhakti Husada Boarding School of Poltekkes Kemenkes Semarang. There were 50 samples recruited by simple random sampling, with 25 randomly assigned to the experiment and control group. Numeric Rate Scale (NRS) was used to measure pain. Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney were used to examine the effect of intervention.
Results: There were significant differences in menstrual pain (p <0.001) before and after treatment. The mean of menstrual pain in the treatment group (2.76 ) was lower than the menstrual pain in the control group (5.36) with p <0.001.
Conclusion: Dark chocolate could reduce menstrual pain significantly in the late adolescents.
Arfailasufandi, R. (2015). Pengaruh pemberian coklat hitam terhadap penurunan nyeri haid pada dismenorhea primer mahasiswi PSIK Muhammadiyah Malang [Effect of giving dark chocolate in reducing menstrual pain of primary dysmenorrhea in students of PSIK Muhammadiyah Malang]. Malang, Indonesia: University of Muhammadiyah Malang.
cacaoweb. (2016). About cacau beans, cocoa and chocolate. Retrieved January 16, 2016, from http://www.cacaoweb.net/cocoa-chocolate.html
Elvira, S. D. (2010). Sindrom pra-menstruasi normalkah? [Is pre-menstruation syndrom normal?]. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FK UI.
Ministry of Health of Indonesia. (2013). Permenkes RI nomor 75 tahun 2013 tentang angka kecukupan gizi yang dianjurkan bagi bangsa Indonesia [Regulation of Ministry of Health of Indonesia no 75 year 2013 on nutritional adequacy rates recommended for Indonesian people]. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of Indonesia.
Judha, M., & Sudarti, A. F. (2012). Teori pengukuran nyeri dan nyeri persalinan [Measurement theory and labor pain]. Yogyakarta: Nuha Medika.
Llewellyn-Jones, D. (2005). Setiap wanita: Panduan terlengkap tentang kesehatan, kebidanan & kandungan [Every woman: Complete guideline for health, midwifery and pregnancy]. Jakarta: Delapratasa Publishing.
Nurazizah, E., Tih, F., & Suwindere, W. (2015). Black chocolate consumption reduces subjective symptoms in 18-22 years old females with premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Medicine and Health, 1(1).
Parker, M. A., Sneddon, A. E., & Arbon, P. (2010). The menstrual disorder of teenagers (MDOT) study: Determining typical menstrual patterns and menstrual disturbance in a large population‐based study of Australian teenagers. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 117(2), 185-192.
Puspitasari, N., & Novia, I. (2008). Faktor risiko yang mempengaruhi kejadian dismenore primer [Risk factors that influence primary dysmenorrea]. Indonesian Journal of Public Health, 4(3), 96-103.
Santrock, J. W., & Santrock, J. W. (2007). Psikologi pendidikan [Educational psychology] (2nd ed.) Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.
Smith, G. Z., & Smith, C. C. (2012). Chocolate candies fortified with natural amino acids and/or herbal nutrients for relief of insomnia, pms, and difficulty concentrating. U.S. Patent Application No. 13/485,864.
Speroff, L., & Fritz, M. A. (2005). Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Stoelting‐Gettelfinger, W. (2010). A case study and comprehensive differential diagnosis and care plan for the three Ds of women's health: primary dysmenorrhea, secondary dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 22(10), 513-522.
Widyastuti, Y., Rahmawati, A., & Purnamaningrum, Y. E. (2009). Kesehatan reproduksi [Reproduction health]. Yogyakarta: Fitramay.
Wulandari, S., & Afriliana, F. D. (2017). The effect of consumption dark chocolate against primary dismenore pain for girls teenager atKkediri 5 high School. Indian Journal of Medical Research and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(2), 17-24.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.