Background: Exclusive breastfeeding in Semarang during the past five years remains low. Only 20 to 64% of mothers were breastfed exclusively in 2010-2012. The incidence of postpartum blues was reported by 29.9% of mothers and most of them were primiparous.
Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of loving massage, aromatherapy, and a combination of loving massage and aromatherapy on stress levels, and changes in levels of prolactin in primiparous puerperal in Semarang.
Method: A true experimental study with a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Cluster random sampling was used to select 12 health centers from the 37 health centers in Semarang. A random assignment with a sealed envelope was performed to divide study participants into four groups; loving massage group, aromatherapy group, and a combination group of loving massage and aromatherapy, and a control group. A total of 52 primiparous puerperal mothers was involved, with 13 mothers were distributed equally in each group.
Results: Loving massage, aromatherapy, and a combination of loving massage and aromatherapy effectively changed mother’s stress and prolactin levels. Effectiveness of each treatment assessed from the average difference in scores before and after treatment. Combination of loving massage and aromatherapy had proven as the most effective treatment in reducing stress levels (11.61 ± 6.76), and increasing prolactin level (83.13 ± 6.41 ng/ml).
Conclusions: Loving massage and aromatherapy shown to lower the levels of stress, and can increase the levels prolactin in postpartum primiparous. Therefore, it is recommended to provide loving massage therapy and aromatherapy to postpartum primiparous mothers.
UNICEF. ASI penyelamat hidup paling murah dan efektif di dunia [Breastfeeding is the cheapest and most effective way of life in the world]. Jakarta: UNICEF; 2012.
Mgongo M, Mosha MV, Uriyo JG, Msuya SE, Stray-Pedersen B. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study. International Breastfeeding Journal. 2013;8(1):1.
Kendall-Tackett KA. Depression in new mothers: Causes, consequences, and treatment alternatives. New York: Routledge; 2007.
Groer MW, Morgan K. Immune, health and endocrine characteristics of depressed postpartum mothers. Psychoneuroendocri-nology.2007;32(2):133-139.
Kendall-Tackett K. A new paradigm for depression in new mothers: the central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments protect maternal mental health. International Breastfeeding Journal. 2007;2(1):1.
Kuriyama H, Watanabe S, Nakaya T, et al. Immunological and psychological benefits of aromatherapy massage. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005;2(2):179-184.
Jamwal N, Kumar S, Rana A. Phytochemical and pharmacological review on foeniculum vulgare.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;4(3):327-341.
Ross LE, McLean LM, Psych C. Anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic review. Depression. 2006;6(9):1-14.
Badgujar SB, Patel VV, Bandivdekar AH. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology. BioMed Research International. 2014;2014.
Duan X, Tashiro M, Wu D, et al. Autonomic nervous function and localization of cerebral activity during lavender aromatic immersion. Technology and Health Care. 2007;15(2):69-78.
Wahyuni S, Murwati M, Supiati S. Faktor internal dan eksternal yang mempengaruhi depresi postpartum [Internal and external factor that influence postpartum depression]. Jurnal Terpadu Ilmu Kesehatan. 2014;3(2).
Primadiati R. Aromaterapi: Perawatan alami untuk sehat dan cantik [Aroma-therapy: Natural care for healthy and beautiful]. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama; 2002.
Pamuji SEB, Rahayu S. Pengaruh kombinasi metode pijat woolwich dan endorphine terhadap kadar hormon prolaktin dan volume asi (studi pada ibu postpartum di Griya Hamil Sehat Mejasem Kabupaten Tegal) [Effect of combination of woolwich and endorphine massge methods on prolactin hormone and breastfeed volume (case study of pospartum mothers at Griya Hamil Sehat Mejasem Kabupaten Tegal]. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kesehatan. 2015;5(1).
Benson RC. Handbook of obstetrics & gynecology. Jakarta: McGraw Hill; 2008.
Biancuzzo M. Breastfeeding the newborn: Clinical strategies for nurses. Missouri: Mosby Incorporated; 2003.
Gartner LM, Morton J, Lawrence RA, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):496-506.
Department of Health. Manajemen laktasi: buku pegangan bagi petugas kesehatan [Lactation management: A handbook for health workers]. Jakarta: Department of Health of Indonesia; 2010.
Hall HG, Griffiths DL, McKenna LG. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by pregnant women: a literature review. Midwifery. 2011;27(6):817-824.
Kinser PA, Goehler L, Taylor AG. How might yoga help depression? A neurobiological perspective. Explore (New York, NY). 2012;8(2):118.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.