Recovery from ‘schizophrenia’: Perspectives of mental health nurses in the Eastern island of Indonesia
PDF

Keywords

mental health
schizophrenia
Indonesia
community health centers
qualitative research
nursing

How to Cite

Tasijawa, F. A., Suryani, S., Sutini, T., & Maelissa, S. R. (2021). Recovery from ‘schizophrenia’: Perspectives of mental health nurses in the Eastern island of Indonesia. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(4), 336-345. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1621

Abstract

Background: Recovery is a way of life to make people’s lives more meaningful by working and interacting socially in the community. The recovery has become a new vision of mental health services, including in persons with schizophrenia. However, this concept is relatively new and still limited to nurses in developing countries, such as Indonesia. Several studies among nurses related to this topic have been conducted in the Western part of Indonesia. Yet, no studies have been implemented in the Eastern part of Indonesia. Therefore, exploring nurses’ perspectives in the Eastern island of Indonesia is necessary to provide a complete understanding of recovery in patients with schizophrenia.

Objective: To explore the perspectives of mental health nurses on recovery from schizophrenia. 

Methods: This was a qualitative study using a phenomenological design. The study was conducted from April to May 2020 at community health centers in Maluku, Indonesia. Eight nurses recruited using purposive sampling participated in in-depth interviews. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, validated, and analyzed based on Colaizzi’s method of data analysis.

Results: Five themes were generated, including (i) treat a patient like a brother, (ii) recovery as an unfamiliar term with various meanings, (iii) medication as the primary action but also the main problem, (iv) being recovered if referred to a mental hospital, and (v) ineffective mental health programs.

Conclusion: The findings of this study can be used as an input and evaluation for nurse managers to make an effort to uniform the perception among nurses in Indonesia regarding the recovery process in schizophrenia. It is also suggested that community health centers leaders and mental health policymakers prioritize and optimize recovery-oriented mental health programs and services in the Eastern island of Indonesia. Additionally, the findings offer new insight about ‘we are brothers’ or called ‘hidop orang basudara’, which is expected to be one motto for nursing care in Indonesia and beyond.

https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1621
PDF

References

Acim, A., Situmorang, R., & Salenussa, B. J. M. (2019). Reviewing Maluku’s local culture through multicultural education approaches. Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences, 4(2), 99-101. https://doi.org/10.31580/apss.v4i2.750

Adams, C. E., Awad, G. A., Rathbone, J., Thornley, B., & Soares‐Weiser, K. (2014). Chlorpromazine versus placebo for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1), CD000284. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000284.pub3

Agustina, H. S., Suryani, S., & Widianti, E. (2019). Nurses’ life experiences as persons in charge of mental health programs in community health center. Jurnal Keperawatan Padjadjaran, 7(2), 198-208. https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v7i2.1113

Anthony, W. A. (1993). Recovery from mental illness: The guiding vision of the mental health service system in the 1990s. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(4), 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0095655

Barut, J. K., Dietrich, M. S., Zanoni, P. A., & Ridner, S. H. (2016). Sense of belonging and hope in the lives of persons with schizophrenia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30(2), 178-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2015.08.009

BBC News. (2018). Indonesia country profile. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-14921238

Buckland, H. T., Schepp, K. G., & Crusoe, K. (2013). Defining happiness for young adults with schizophrenia: A building block for recovery. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 27(5), 235-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2013.07.002

Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). The world factbook of Indonesia population. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html

Coffey, M., & Hewitt, J. (2008). ‘You don’t talk about the voices’: Voice hearers and community mental health nurses talk about responding to voice hearing experiences. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(12), 1591-1600. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02185.x

Colaizzi, P. F. (1978). Psychological research as the phenomenologist views it. In R. Valle & M. King (Eds.), Existential phenomenological alternatives for psychology (pp. 48-71). New York: Oxford University Press.

Drapalski, A. L., Medoff, D., Unick, G. J., Velligan, D. I., Dixon, L. B., & Bellack, A. S. (2012). Assessing recovery of people with serious mental illness: Development of a new scale. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 63(1), 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201100109

Gaebel, W., Stricker, J., & Riesbeck, M. (2020). The long-term antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia: A selective review of clinical guidelines and clinical case examples. Schizophrenia Research, 225, 4-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.10.049

Gotama, S. K. M., Indra, I. B., Anorital, S. K. M., Anorital, S. K. M., & Pengumpulan, S. B. (2019). Masalah kesehatan dan kebutuhan penelitian di propinsi-propinsi wilayah Indonesia bagian timur [Health problems and research needs in the provinces at the Eastern part of Indonesia]. Retrieved from Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health: http://litbang.kemkes.go.id:8080/handle/123456789/79971

Gunawan, J. (2019). This is 2019! But I still need to work double shifts and have multiple jobs to keep me alive”: A phenomenon among nurses in Indonesia. Belitung Nursing Journal, 5(3), 108-110. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.810

Gunawan, J., Aungsuroch, Y., Fisher, M. L., McDaniel, A. M., & Marzilli, C. (2020). Perceived managerial competence of first-line nurse managers: A comparative analysis among public hospitals. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 21(3), 151-163. https://doi.org/10.1177/1527154420926616

Idaiani, S. (2009). Kesehatan jiwa yang terabaikan dari target milenium [The neglected mental health of the millennial target]. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal), 4(3), 137-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v4i3.186

Ito, H., Setoya, Y., & Suzuki, Y. (2012). Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia. World Psychiatry, 11(3), 186. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2051-5545.2012.tb00129.x

Jacob, K. S. (2015). Recovery model of mental illness: A complementary approach to psychiatric care. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 37(2), 117-119. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.155605

Kaewprom, C., Curtis, J., & Deane, F. P. (2011). Factors involved in recovery from schizophrenia: A qualitative study of Thai mental health nurses. Nursing & Health Sciences, 13(3), 323-327. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2018.2011.00621.x

Karanci, N. A., Gök, A. C., Yıldırım, B., & Borhan, N. (2017). Social support perceptions of Turkish people with schizophrenia: What helps and what doesn’t help. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 63(7), 657-665. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764017726931

Majomi, P., Brown, B., & Crawford, P. (2003). Sacrificing the personal to the professional: Community mental health nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(5), 527-538. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02652.x

McCorkle, B. H., Rogers, E. S., Dunn, E. C., Lyass, A., & Wan, Y. M. (2008). Increasing social support for individuals with serious mental illness: Evaluating the compeer model of intentional friendship. Community Mental Health Journal, 44(5), 359-366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-008-9137-8

Meng, Q., Li, R., Hou, F., & Zhang, Q. (2018). Effects of chlorpromazine on sleep quality, clinical and emotional measures among patients with schizophrenia. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 165, 134-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.01.007

Ministry of Health of Indonesia. (2018). Rencana Aksi Kegiatan (RAK) 2015-2019 [Action plan for 2015-2019]. Retrieved from Jakarta, Indonesia: https://e-renggar.kemkes.go.id/file2018/e-performance/1-401733-4tahunan-365.pdf

Ministry of Health of Indonesia. (2019a). Health data in Indonesia. Retrieved from Badan PPSDM Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Indonesia: http://bppsdmk.kemkes.go.id/info_sdmk/info/index?rumpun=3

Ministry of Health of Indonesia. (2019b). Regulation of the Minister of Health Number 87 of 2019 concerning Guidelines for the Use of Deconcentration Funds of the Ministry of Health for Fiscal Year 2020. Retrieved from https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/138677/permenkes-no-87-tahun-2019

Ministry of Law and Human Rights. (2014). Regulation of Law No.18 of 2014 concerning mental health. Retrieved from http://ditjenpp.kemenkumham.go.id/arsip/ln/2014/uu18-2014bt.pdf

National Academies of Sciences Engineering Medicine. (2016). Measuring recovery from substance use or mental disorders: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Norman, R. M. G., Windell, D., Manchanda, R., Harricharan, R., & Northcott, S. (2012). Social support and functional outcomes in an early intervention program. Schizophrenia Research, 140(1-3), 37-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2012.07.003

Nurjannah, I., Suryo Prabandari, Y., & Marchira, C. R. (2019). Health professional’s perceptions toward recovery of patients with schizophrenia in community. The Open Public Health Journal, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.2174/1874944501912010026

Onken, S. J., Craig, C. M., Ridgway, P., Ralph, R. O., & Cook, J. A. (2007). An analysis of the definitions and elements of recovery: A review of the literature. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31(1), 9-22. https://doi.org/10.2975/31.1.2007.9.22

Purbaningsih, E. S. (2019). Persepsi klien, keluarga, tenaga profesional dan pengambil kebijakan tentang recovery pada klien skizofrenia di Kecamatan Harjamukti Kota Cirebon [Perception of clients, families, health professionals, and policy makers on recovery of patients with schizophrenia in Harjamukti District Cirebon City]. Syntax Literate; Jurnal Ilmiah Indonesia, 4(3), 19-38.

Riley-McHugh, D., Brown, C. H., & Lindo, J. (2016). Schizophrenia: Its psychological effects on family caregivers. International Journal of Advanced Nursing Studies, 5(1), 96-101. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijans.v5i1.5565

Samara, M. T., Cao, H., Helfer, B., Davis, J. M., & Leucht, S. (2014). Chlorpromazine versus every other antipsychotic for schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis challenging the dogma of equal efficacy of antipsychotic drugs. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(7), 1046-1055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.03.012

Samele, C., Frew, S., & Urquia, N. (2013). Mental health systems in the European union member states, status of mental health in populations and benefits to be expected from investments into mental health: European profile of prevention and promotion of mental health (EuroPoPP-MH):[main Report]. Brussels, Belgium: European Commision, Executive Agencz for Health and Consumers Tender.

Sardjoko, S., Gani, A., Zahrina, Z., & Ali, P. B. (2018). Penguatan pelayanan kesehatan dasar di Puskesmas [Strengthening nasic health services at Puskesmas]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Direktorat Kesehatan daan Gizi Masyarakat, Kedeputian Pembangunan Manusia, Masyarakat dan Kebudayaan, Kementerian PPN/Bappenas.

Shea, J. M. (2010). Coming back normal: The process of self-recovery in those with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 16(1), 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078390309359197

Shean, G. D. (2009). Evidence-based psychosocial practices and recovery from schizophrenia. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 72(4), 307-320. https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.2009.72.4.307

Shen, G. C., & Snowden, L. R. (2014). Institutionalization of deinstitutionalization: A cross-national analysis of mental health system reform. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 8(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-8-47

Shepherd, S., Depp, C. A., Harris, G., Halpain, M., Palinkas, L. A., & Jeste, D. V. (2012). Perspectives on schizophrenia over the lifespan: A qualitative study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(2), 295-303. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbq075

Slade, M. (2010). Mental illness and well-being: The central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches. BMC Health Services Research, 10(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-10-26

Stone, J., Dennis, R. M., Rizova, P. S., Smith, A. D., & Hou, X. (2016). The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and nationalism (Vol. 1). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Suharmiati, L. A. D., & Astuti, W. D. (2013). Policy review on health services in primary health center in the border and remote area. Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan, 16(2), 109-116.

Suryani. (2013). Live experience and recovery in nursing care context. Paper presented at the Orasi Ilmiah pada Diet Natalis XIX, Bandung, Indonesia.

Suryani. (2014). Client centered care in recovery: Trend in mental health service Paper presented at the Seminar dan Workshop: Pendekatan keperawatan holistik berbasis bukti untuk menjawab tantangan kesehatan jiwa terkini, Faculty of Nursing, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia.

Suryani. (2018). Recovery in schizophrenia. Bandung, Indonesia: Unpad Press.

Tania, M., Suryani, S., & Hernawaty, T. (2019). Pengalaman hidup kader kesehatan dalam mendukung proses recovery di Melong Kota Cimahi [Lived experience of health cadre in supporting recovery process at Melong Cimahi City]. Jurnal Keperawatan BSI, 7(1), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.31311/jk.v7i1.5050

van Langen, W. J. M., Beentjes, T. A. A., van Gaal, B. G. I., Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. G., & Goossens, P. J. J. (2016). How the illness management and recovery program enhanced recovery of persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: A qualitative study. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30(5), 552-557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2016.04.005

Windell, D., & Norman, R. M. G. (2013). A qualitative analysis of influences on recovery following a first episode of psychosis. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59(5), 493-500. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764012443751

World Health Organization. (2013). Mental health action plan 2013-2020. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Copyright (c) 2021 Fandro Armando Tasijawa, Suryani Suryani, Titin Sutini, Sinthia Rosanti Maelissa
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.



Article Metrics

Abstract views: 488 | PDF views: 114

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.