Understanding stigma and coping strategies among HIV-negative Muslim wives in serodiscordant relationships in a Javanese community, Indonesia
PDF

Keywords

HIV-negative;
Muslim wives
marriage relationship
HIV-related stigma
serodiscordant
nursing
Indonesia

How to Cite

Agnes, Y. L. N., & Songwathana, P. (2021). Understanding stigma and coping strategies among HIV-negative Muslim wives in serodiscordant relationships in a Javanese community, Indonesia. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(5), 409-417. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1600

Abstract

Background: Although advanced treatment and accessibility of HIV/AIDS prevention and care have been increased, HIV-related stigma persists in the Indonesian community, especially among HIV-negative Muslim wives in a serodiscordant relationship. Therefore, understanding their coping strategies of the stigma is a necessity.

Objective: The study aimed to explore HIV-related stigma and coping strategies of HIV-negative Muslim wives in a serodiscordant relationship.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among seven HIV-negative Muslim wives in a serodiscordant relationship who experienced stigma.  Data were collected by in-depth interview, and content analysis was used for data analysis.

Findings: Three themes emerged from the data. The first theme was the meaning of HIV/AIDS to Muslim wives, including perceiving HIV as a wanita nakal (immoral women) disease, perceiving HIV causes death, assuming herself as a carrier, and presuming HIV is less harmful than Diabetes Mellitus. The second theme was HIV-related stigma experiences, including being shunned by people, rejected by a midwife, and humiliated by a health worker. Finally, the third theme was coping strategies with the stigma, consisting of hiding the husband's HIV-positive status from the neighbors, disclosing HIV-positive status to a selective person, seeking support from the peer group, and strengthening the relationship among family members.

Conclusion: HIV/AIDS-related stigma affected people living with HIV/AIDS and their families, and it becomes a barrier to HIV/AIDS reduction programs in the marriage relationship. These findings will be beneficial to nurses and other health professionals to develop stigma reduction interventions related to HIV/AIDS.  

Funding: This research was funded by the Graduate School at Prince of Songkla University, Thailand; Kadiri University, Indonesia; and the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Indonesia Scholarship.

https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1600
PDF

References

Agnes Yeni, L. N., Songwathana, P., & Perngmark, P. (2020). A grounded theory study of how Muslim wives adapt to their relationships with husbands who are HIV-positive. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research,, 24(2), 187-201.

Agnes, Y. L. N., Songwathana, P., & Perngmark, P. (2018). Sexual negotiation for HIV prevention among Muslim married women within serodiscordant relationships in the Indonesian socio-cultural context. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Thailand.

Anima-Korang, A., Gere, B. O., & Salimi, N. (2018). Stigma and discrimination: Coping strategies for persons living with HIV/AIDS in rural America. IAFOR Journal of Psychology & the Behavioral Sciences, 4(1), 33-44. https://doi.org/10.22492/ijpbs.4.1.03

Badahdah, A. M. (2010). Stigmatization of persons with HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(4), 386-392. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1043659609360873

Bourne, A., Owuor, J., & Dodds, C. (2017). Intimacy, support and social connectivity: Experiences of HIV serodiscordant relationships among black African people living in England. In A. Persson & S. D. Hughes (Eds.), Cross-cultural perspectives on couples with mixed HIV status: Beyond positive/negative (pp. 111-124). Switzerland: Springer.

Chambers, L. A., Rueda, S., Baker, D. N., Wilson, M. G., Deutsch, R., Raeifar, E., & Rourke, S. B. (2015). Stigma, HIV and health: A qualitative synthesis. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2197-0

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London, UK: Sage Publications Ltd.

Dogarawa, A. B. (2009). Marriage and divorce in Islam. Paper presented at the NTA/FRCN Ramadan Annual Lecture Series 1430. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/23194/

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hasnain, M. (2005). Cultural approach to HIV/AIDS harm reduction in Muslim countries. Harm Reduction Journal, 2(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7517-2-23

Imelda, J. (2011). Mobilizing motherhood: A case study of two women’s organizations advocating HIV prevention programs in Indonesia. (PhD Thesis), Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR), Amsterdam. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/11245/1.363831

Indonesian Ministry of Health. (2021). Laporan perkembangan HIV/AIDS dan Penyakit Menular Seksual (PIMS) triwulan IV tahun 2020 [Progress report of HIV/AIDS and STDs trimester IV year 2020]. Retrieved from https://siha.kemkes.go.id/portal/files_upload/Laporan_Perkembangan_HIV_AIDS_dan_PIMS_Triwulan_III_Tahun_2020.pdf

Jaafar-Mohammad, I., & Lehmann, C. (2011). Women's rights in Islam regarding marriage and divorce. Journal of Law and Practice, 4(1), Article 3.

Juanamasta, I. G., Nursalam, N., Efendi, F., & Erwansyah, R. A. (2020). Stigma of people living with HIV/AIDS. NurseLine Journal(2), 154-162. https://doi.org/10.19184/nlj.v4i2.12107

Kasapoglu, A., Saillard, E. K., Kaya, N., & Turan, F. (2011). AIDS related stigma in social relations: A qualitative study in Turkey. Qualitative Report, 16(6), 1496-1516. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2011.1314

Kumar, S., Mohanraj, R., Rao, D., Murray, K. R., & Manhart, L. E. (2015). Positive coping strategies and HIV-related stigma in south India. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 29(3), 157-163. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2014.0182

Kyngäs, H., Mikkonen, K., & Kääriäinen, M. (2020). The application of content analysis in nursing science research. Switzerland: Springer Nature.

Larki, M. (2020). Living with discordance: A qualitative description of the challenges faced by HIV negative married women. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery, 8(2), 103-115. https://doi.org/10.30476/ijcbnm.2020.82845.1093

Mahamboro, D. B., Fauk, N. K., Ward, P. R., Merry, M. S., Siri, T. A., & Mwanri, L. (2020). HIV stigma and moral judgement: Qualitative exploration of the experiences of HIV stigma and discrimination among married men living with HIV in Yogyakarta. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2), 636. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020636

Mendelsohn, J. B., Calzavara, L., Daftary, A., Mitra, S., Pidutti, J., Allman, D., . . . Myers, T. (2015). A scoping review and thematic analysis of social and behavioural research among HIV-serodiscordant couples in high-income settings. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1488-9

Parker, L., Riyani, I., & Nolan, B. (2016). The stigmatisation of widows and divorcees (janda) in Indonesia, and the possibilities for agency. Indonesia and the Malay World, 44(128), 27-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2016.1111677

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Putri, D. K., Malini, H., & Basmanelly, B. (2019). Living with HIV/AIDS: Stigma and social discrimination. Jurnal The Messenger, 11(1), 10-17. https://doi.org/10.26623/themessenger.v11i1.875

Qonitatillah, J., Handayani, S., Ernawati, E., & Rusli, M. (2020). Lower perceived-stigmatization by health workers among HIV-AIDS patients of key population backgrounds. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease, 8(2), 90-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/ijtid.v8i2.15425

Rispel, L. C., Cloete, A., & Metcalf, C. A. (2015). 'We keep her status to ourselves': Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. SAHARA: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance, 12(1), 10-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/17290376.2015.1014403

Sciortino, R., Marcoes Natsir, L., & Mas' udi, M. F. (1996). Learning from Islam: Advocacy of reproductive rights in Indonesian pesantren. Reproductive Health Matters, 4(8), 86-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-8080(96)90305-5

Siegel, K., Meunier, É., & Lekas, H.-M. (2018). The experience and management of HIV stigma among HIV-negative adults in heterosexual serodiscordant relationships in New York City. AIDS Care, 30(7), 871-878. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2018.1441971

Talley, A. E., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2010). A relationship-oriented model of HIV-related stigma derived from a review of the HIV-affected couples literature. AIDS and Behavior, 14(1), 72-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-008-9493-y

UNAIDS. (2020). UNAIDS data 2020. Retrieved from https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2020/unaids-data

World Health Organization. (2012). Guidance on Couples HIV Testing and Counselling (CHTC). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/9789241501972/en/index.html#

Copyright (c) 2021 Yeni Lufiana Novita Agnes, Praneed Songwathana
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.



Article Metrics

Abstract views: 164 | PDF views: 73

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.