Coping style, anxiety level, organizational support, and work commitment of educators during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines: A mixed-methods study
PDF

Keywords

COVID-19
coping
anxiety
organizational support
work commitment
educators
nursing
Philippines

How to Cite

Aragasi, N. A., & Pangandaman, H. K. (2021). Coping style, anxiety level, organizational support, and work commitment of educators during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines: A mixed-methods study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(4), 267-276. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1393

Abstract

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has distorted the education system, which greatly challenged educators in the pursuit of the continuity and quality of education. Commitment to perform duties and responsibilities are bounded in coping with the situation, emotional state, and the support from the organization.

Objective: To analyze and understand the presumed interrelationship of modeled variables, such as the coping style, anxiety level, organizational support, and work commitment of educators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: It is a mixed-methods study through an explanatory sequential approach. The path analysis technique was applied for quantitative with 116 educators as sample respondents guided by selection criteria. Digital immigrant educators with extreme responses were identified and asked permission for an interview.  Open-access adapted questionnaires used were Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Perceived Organizational Support (POS), Allen and Meyer’s Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). Data were processed and analyzed using SPSS and AMOS for descriptive and inferential statistics. A four-domain semi-structured questionnaire served as a guide in interviewing participants in the context of coping, anxiety, support, and work commitment. Thematic analysis was performed to generate themes.  

Results: This study shown that educators often used coping style (1.87 ± 0.84; Mean ± SD), have a low level of anxiety (0.58 ± 0.69; Mean ± SD), have perceived uncertainty related to organizational support (4.03 ± 1.37; Mean ± SD), and neither agree nor disagree in terms of their work commitment (3.02 ± 0.93; Mean ± SD). The presumed model through path analysis has significantly predicted 28% plausibility (R2= 0.28) with only organizational support that shown significant influence towards educators’ work commitment (β = 0.22). The themes that emerged are challenging adjustment, predestined situation, fear of getting infected, difficulty teaching effectively, technologically challenged, psychosocial assistance, uncertainty, and willingness to explore.

Conclusion: Educators during the COVID-19 pandemic were able to cope and control their anxiety through the test of time, seamless work commitment, and presence of support. This study can be considered a framework for situational analysis of nurse educators in the academic realm in times of emergency and disaster. 

https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1393
PDF

References

Adedoyin, Olasile Babatunde, & Soykan, Emrah. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: The challenges and opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180

Ali, Wahab. (2020). Online and remote learning in higher education institutes: A necessity in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Higher Education Studies, 10(3), 16-25. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p16

Beck, Aaron T., Epstein, Norman, Brown, Gary, & Steer, Robert A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(6), 893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.6.893

Daniel, John. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3

Donohue, Julie M., & Miller, Elizabeth. (2020). COVID-19 and school closures. JAMA, 324(9), 845-847. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.13092

Flores, Maria Assunção, & Swennen, Anja. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 453-456. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1824253

Hamouche, Salima. (2020). COVID-19 and employees’ mental health: Stressors, moderators and agenda for organizational actions. Emerald Open Research, 2, 15. https://doi.org/10.35241/emeraldopenres.13550.1

Ivankova, Nataliya V., Creswell, John W., & Stick, Sheldon L. (2006). Using mixed-methods sequential explanatory design: From theory to practice. Field Methods, 18(1), 3-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X05282260

Labrague, Leodoro J., & De los Santos, Janet Alexis A. (2020). COVID-19 anxiety among front-line nurses: Predictive role of organisational support, personal resilience and social support. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(7), 1653-1661. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13121

Labrague, Leodoro J., & de Los Santos, Janet Alexis A. (2021). Fear of Covid‐19, psychological distress, work satisfaction and turnover intention among frontline nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 29(3), 395-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13168

Liu, Sam, Lithopoulos, Alexander, Zhang, Chun-Qing, Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A., & Rhodes, Ryan E. (2021). Personality and perceived stress during COVID-19 pandemic: Testing the mediating role of perceived threat and efficacy. Personality and Individual Differences, 168, 110351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110351

Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja. (2011). The relationship of anxiety, coping, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics among young adult college students. (Dissertation), University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Mertens, Gaëtan, Gerritsen, Lotte, Duijndam, Stefanie, Salemink, Elske, & Engelhard, Iris M. (2020). Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): Predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 74, 102258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102258

Omair, Aamir. (2014). Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample. Journal of Health Specialties, 2(4), 142. https://doi.org/10.4103/1658-600x.142783

Pangandaman, Hamdoni K., Ali, Nassefah D., Lambayong, Joy Hope C., & Ergas, Mona Liza G. (2019a). Philippine higher education vis-à-vis education 4.0: A scoping review. International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 3(3), 65-69.

Pangandaman, Hamdoni K., Boloron, Ritchel P., Lambayong, Joy Hope C., Ergas, Mona Liza G., Raki-in, Romanoff M., Mai-Alauya, Sittie Ainah M., & Mukattil, N. P. (2019b). Innovative classroom pedagogy In nursing education: A systematic review. International Journal of Health Medicine and Current Research, 4(4), 1543-1549. https://doi.org/10.22301/IJHMCR.2528-3189.1543

Rahaman, H. S. (2012). Organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and job satisfaction among school teachers: Comparing public and private sectors in Bangladesh. South Asian Journal of Management, 19(3), 7-17.

Reimers, Fernando, Schleicher, Andreas, Saavedra, Jaime, & Tuominen, Saku. (2020). Supporting the continuation of teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved from https://globaled.gse.harvard.edu/files/geii/files/supporting_the_continuation_of_teaching.pdf

Rozdi, Zuraimi Md, Othman, Salmiah, Ahmad, Che Nidzam Che, & Mohamed, Zulkifley. (2017). Translation, validity and reliability of perceived organizational support. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(10), 2222-6990. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v7-i10/3390

Salazar-Márquez, Roberto. (2017). Digital immigrants in distance education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning: IRRODL, 18(6), 231-242. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i6.2967

Talidong, Karen Joy B., & Toquero, Cathy Mae D. (2020). Philippine teachers’ practices to deal with anxiety amid COVID-19. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(6-7), 573-579. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1759225

Vaismoradi, Mojtaba, Turunen, Hannele, & Bondas, Terese. (2013). Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 15(3), 398-405. https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12048

Wilson, Mugizi, Bakkabulindi, Fred, & Ssempebwa, Jude. (2016). Validity and reliability of Allen and Meyer’s (1990) measure of employee commitment in the context of academic staff in Universities in Uganda. Journal of Sociology and Education in Africa, 14(1), 1-9.

Yu, Hua, Li, Mingli, Li, Zhixiong, Xiang, Weiyi, Yuan, Yiwen, Liu, Yaya, . . . Xiong, Zhenzhen. (2020). Coping style, social support and psychological distress in the general Chinese population in the early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02826-3

Copyright (c) 2021 Norhidayah A. Aragasi, Hamdoni K. Pangandaman
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.



Article Metrics

Abstract views: 421 | PDF views: 179

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.