The development of Need–Threat Internal Resiliency Theory in COVID-19 crisis utilizing deductive axiomatic approach

Jonaid Mustapha Sadang, Daisy R Palompon



Resiliency for older people represents the capacity to return to equilibrium when difficulties arise and was found as integral predictor of their health status. This study aims to develop a theory that attempts to explain the older adults’ resiliency perspectives during crisis and how it has affected their well-being and quality of life as population group. Deductive theory generation using axiomatic approach was adopted resulting to five axioms that served as basis for the generation of three propositions such as: (1) An older person’s health needs have tendencies to develop into a health threat, (2) when the threat is perceived, older persons developed a sense of internal control and adaptation to the changes it creates known as internal resiliency, and (3) internal resiliency can influence the quality of life in old age. The evolved theory suggests that in times of crisis (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic), health needs develop into a health threat that compels older persons to develop internal resiliency in order to preserve their integrity, wellbeing and quality of life. This study widens the nursing perspectives in addressing older persons’ resiliency by the unique condition at which older clients are placed affecting both the pathological nature of the illness as well as the preventive interventions which the society is forced to implement.


COVID-19; need-threat; internal resiliency; older adults; deductive axiomatic approach; nursing

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