Factors related to Internet and game addiction among adolescents: A scoping review

Siripattra Juthamanee, Joko Gunawan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1192


Background: Understanding factors influencing Internet and game addiction in children and adolescents is very important to prevent negative consequences; however, the existing factors in the literature remain inconclusive.

Objective: This study aims to systematically map the existing literature of factors related to Internet and game addiction in adolescents.

Methods: A scoping review was completed using three databases - Science Direct, PROQUEST Dissertations and Theses, and Google Scholar, which covered the years between 2009 to July 2020. Quality appraisal and data extraction were presented. A content analysis was used to synthesize the results.

Results: Ultimately, 62 studies met inclusion criteria. There were 82 associated factors identified and grouped into 11 categories, including (1) socio-demographic characteristics, (2) parental and family factors, (3) device ownership, Internet access and location, social media, and the game itself, (4) personality/traits, psychopathology factors, self-efficacy, (5) education and school factors, (6) perceived enjoyment, (7) perceived benefits, (8) health-compromising behaviors, (9) peers/friends relationships and supports, (10) life dissatisfaction and stress, and (11) cybersafety.

Conclusion: Internet and game addiction among adolescents are multifactorial. Nurses should consider the factors identified in this study to provide strategies to prevent and reduce addiction in adolescents.


adolescent; addictive behavior; Internet; gaming; influencing factors; nursing

Full Text:



Adiele, I., & Olatokun, W. (2014). Prevalence and determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.028

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., Gjertsen, S. R., Krossbakken, E., Kvam, S., & Pallesen, S. (2013). The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(2), 90-99. https://doi.org/10.1556/jba.2.2013.003

Bianchini, V., Cecilia, M. R., Roncone, R., & Cofini, V. (2017). Prevalence and factors associated with problematic Internet use: An Italian survey among L’Aquila students. Rivista di Psichiatria, 52(2), 90-93.

Billieux, J., Thorens, G., Khazaal, Y., Zullino, D., Achab, S., & Van der Linden, M. (2015). Problematic involvement in online games: A cluster analytic approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 242-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.10.055

Bonnaire, C., & Phan, O. (2017). Relationships between parental attitudes, family functioning and Internet gaming disorder in adolescents attending school. Psychiatry Research, 255, 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.05.030

Carli, V., Durkee, T., Wasserman, D., Hadlaczky, G., Despalins, R., Kramarz, E., . . . Brunner, R. (2013). The association between pathological Internet use and comorbid psychopathology: A systematic review. Psychopathology, 46(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1159/000337971

CASP. (2010). 10 questions to help you make sense of qualitative research. Retrieved from http://www.caspinternational.org/mod_product/uploadsCASP%20Qualitative%20Research%20Checklist%2031.05.13.pdf.

Chang, F.-C., Chiu, C.-H., Lee, C.-M., Chen, P.-H., & Miao, N.-F. (2014). Predictors of the initiation and persistence of Internet addiction among adolescents in Taiwan. Addictive Behaviors, 39(10), 1434-1440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.05.010

Charoenwanit, S., & Sumneangsanor, T. (2014). Predictors of game addiction in children and adolescents. Thammasat Review, 17(1), 150-166.

Chen, S.-H., Weng, L.-J., Su, Y.-J., Wu, H.-M., & Yang, P.-F. (2003). Development of a Chinese Internet addiction scale and its psychometric study. Chinese Journal of Psychology.

Chen, Y.-L., Chen, S.-H., & Gau, S. S.-F. (2015). ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: A longitudinal study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 20-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.025

Choi, H. J., & Yoo, J. H. (2015). A study on the relationship between self-esteem, social support, smartphone dependency, internet game dependency of college students. Journal of East-West Nursing Research, 21(1), 78-84. https://doi.org/10.14370/jewnr.2015.21.1.78

Choo, H., Sim, T., Liau, A. K. F., Gentile, D. A., & Khoo, A. (2015). Parental influences on pathological symptoms of video-gaming among children and adolescents: A prospective study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(5), 1429-1441. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9949-9

Dhir, A., Chen, S., & Nieminen, M. (2015). Predicting adolescent Internet addiction: The roles of demographics, technology accessibility, unwillingness to communicate and sought Internet gratifications. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 24-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.056

Ding, Q., Li, D., Zhou, Y., Dong, H., & Luo, J. (2017). Perceived parental monitoring and adolescent Internet addiction: A moderated mediation model. Addictive Behaviors, 74, 48-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.033

Dong, G., Wang, J., Yang, X., & Zhou, H. (2013). Risk personality traits of Internet addiction: A longitudinal study of Internet‐addicted Chinese university students. Asia‐Pacific Psychiatry, 5(4), 316-321. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00185.x

Frangos, C. C., Frangos, C. C., & Sotiropoulos, I. (2011). Problematic internet use among Greek university students: An ordinal logistic regression with risk factors of negative psychological beliefs, pornographic sites, and online games. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(1-2), 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0306

Frisch, N. C., & Frisch, L. E. (2006). Psychiatric mental health nursing. Canada: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2012). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Gunawan, J., Aungsuroch, Y., & Fisher, M. L. (2018). Factors contributing to managerial competence of first‐line nurse managers: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 24(1), e12611. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12611

Herodotou, C., Winters, N., & Kambouri, M. (2012). A motivationally oriented approach to understanding game appropriation. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 28(1), 34-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2011.566108

Hu, J., Zhen, S., Yu, C., Zhang, Q., & Zhang, W. (2017). Sensation seeking and online gaming addiction in adolescents: A moderated mediation model of positive affective associations and impulsivity. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 699. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00699

Hull, D. C., Williams, G. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: A pilot study. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(3), 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1556/jba.2.2013.005

Hyun, G. J., Han, D. H., Lee, Y. S., Kang, K. D., Yoo, S. K., Chung, U.-S., & Renshaw, P. F. (2015). Risk factors associated with online game addiction: A hierarchical model. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 706-713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.008

Jeong, E. J., Lee, H. R., & Yoo, J. H. (2015). Addictive use due to personality: focused on big five personality traits and game addiction. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 9(6), 1995-1999.

Karaca, S., Karakoc, A., Gurkan, O. C., Onan, N., & Barlas, G. U. (2020). Investigation of the online game addiction level, sociodemographic characteristics and social anxiety as risk factors for online game addiction in middle school students. Community Mental Health Journal, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-019-00544-z

Keyko, K., Cummings, G. G., Yonge, O., & Wong, C. A. (2016). Work engagement in professional nursing practice: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 61, 142-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.06.003

Kim, Y.-Y., & Kim, M.-H. (2017). The impact of social factors on excessive online game usage, moderated by online self-identity. Cluster Computing, 20(1), 569-582. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10586-017-0747-1

King, D. L., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2017). Features of parent-child relationships in adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(6), 1270-1283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-016-9699-6

Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Chen, C.-C., Chen, S.-H., & Yen, C.-F. (2005). Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(4), 273-277. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd.0000158373.85150.57

Kuss, D. J., Van Rooij, A. J., Shorter, G. W., Griffiths, M. D., & van de Mheen, D. (2013). Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1987-1996.

Kwak, J. Y., Kim, J. Y., & Yoon, Y. W. (2018). Effect of parental neglect on smartphone addiction in adolescents in South Korea. Child Abuse & Neglect, 77, 75-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.12.008

Laconi, S., Pirès, S., & Chabrol, H. (2017). Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathology. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 652-659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.012

Lee, C., & Kim, O. (2017). Predictors of online game addiction among Korean adolescents. Addiction Research & Theory, 25(1), 58-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2016.1198474

Lee, H., Kim, J. W., & Choi, T. Y. (2017). Risk factors for smartphone addiction in Korean adolescents: Smartphone use patterns. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 32(10), 1674-1679. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2017.32.10.1674

Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents. Media Psychology, 12(1), 77-95. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260802669458

Li, C., Dang, J., Zhang, X., Zhang, Q., & Guo, J. (2014). Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: The effect of parental behavior and self-control. Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.09.001

Lim, Y., & Nam, S.-J. (2018). Exploring factors related to problematic internet use in childhood and adolescence. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9990-9

Lin, M.-P., Ko, H.-C., & Wu, J. Y.-W. (2011). Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(12), 741-746. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0574

Mehroof, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2010). Online gaming addiction: The role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(3), 313-316. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0229

Milani, L., La Torre, G., Fiore, M., Grumi, S., Gentile, D. A., Ferrante, M., . . . Di Blasio, P. (2018). Internet gaming addiction in adolescence: Risk factors and maladjustment correlates. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 16(4), 888-904. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-017-9750-2

Moslehpour, M., & Batjargal, U. (2013). Factors influencing internet addiction among adolescents of Malaysia and Mongolia. Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, 9(2).

Müller, K. W., Janikian, M., Dreier, M., Wölfling, K., Beutel, M. E., Tzavara, C., . . . Tsitsika, A. (2015). Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: Results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(5), 565-574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0611-2

Peeters, M., Koning, I., & van den Eijnden, R. (2018). Predicting Internet gaming disorder symptoms in young adolescents: A one-year follow-up study. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 255-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.11.008

Porter, G., Starcevic, V., Berle, D., & Fenech, P. (2010). Recognizing problem video game use. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(2), 120-128. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048670903279812

Rehbein, F., Psych, G., Kleimann, M., Mediasci, G., & Mößle, T. (2010). Prevalence and risk factors of video game dependency in adolescence: Results of a German nationwide survey. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(3), 269-277. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0227

Rho, M. J., Jeong, J.-E., Chun, J.-W., Cho, H., Jung, D. J., Choi, I. Y., & Kim, D.-J. (2016). Predictors and patterns of problematic Internet game use using a decision tree model. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(3), 500-509. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.051

Samarein, Z. A., Far, N. S., Yekleh, M., Tahmasebi, S., Yaryari, F., Ramezani, V., & Sandi, L. (2013). Relationship between personality traits and internet addiction of students at Kharazmi University. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Research, 2(1), 10-17.

Smith, L. J., Gradisar, M., & King, D. L. (2015). Parental influences on adolescent video game play: A study of accessibility, rules, limit setting, monitoring, and cybersafety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(5), 273-279. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2014.0611

Spilkova, J., Chomynova, P., & Csemy, L. (2017). Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(4), 611-619. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.064

Stavropoulos, V., Kuss, D., Griffiths, M., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2016). A longitudinal study of adolescent Internet addiction: The role of conscientiousness and classroom hostility. Journal of Adolescent Research, 31(4), 442-473. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558415580163

Sul, S. (2015). Determinants of internet game addiction and therapeutic role of family leisure participation. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, 82(1-2), 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10847-015-0508-9

Sun, Y., Zhao, Y., Jia, S.-Q., & Zheng, D.-Y. (2015, 2015). Understanding the antecedents of mobile game addiction: The roles of perceived visibility, perceived enjoyment and flow. Paper presented at the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS).

Tian, Y., Yu, C., Lin, S., Lu, J., Liu, Y., & Zhang, W. (2019). Sensation seeking, deviant peer affiliation, and Internet gaming addiction among Chinese adolescents: The moderating effect of parental knowledge. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2727. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02727

Toker, S., & Baturay, M. H. (2016). Antecedents and consequences of game addiction. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 668-679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.10.002

Torres-Rodríguez, A., Griffiths, M. D., Carbonell, X., & Oberst, U. (2018). Internet gaming disorder in adolescence: Psychological characteristics of a clinical sample. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(3), 707-718. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.75

Tsitsika, A., Janikian, M., Schoenmakers, T. M., Tzavela, E. C., Olafsson, K., Wójcik, S., . . . Richardson, C. (2014). Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: A cross-sectional study in seven European countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(8), 528-535. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2013.0382

Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, T., Filipovic, S., & Opacic, G. (2015). The mediating role of symptoms of psychopathology between irrational beliefs and internet gaming addiction. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 33(4), 387-405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-015-0218-7

Walther, B., Morgenstern, M., & Hanewinkel, R. (2012). Co-occurrence of addictive behaviours: Personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming. European Addiction Research, 18(4), 167-174. https://doi.org/10.1159/000335662

Wu, J. Y. W., Ko, H.-C., Wong, T.-Y., Wu, L.-A., & Oei, T. P. (2016). Positive outcome expectancy mediates the relationship between peer influence and Internet gaming addiction among adolescents in Taiwan. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(1), 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2015.0345

Wu, X.-S., Zhang, Z.-H., Zhao, F., Wang, W.-J., Li, Y.-F., Bi, L., . . . Hu, C.-Y. (2016). Prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with social support and other related factors among adolescents in China. Journal of Adolescence, 52, 103-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.07.012

Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Siripattra Juthamanee, Joko Gunawan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.