THE ROLE OF CHLOROQUINE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT IN A PATIENT WITH COVID-19: A CASE REPORT IN INDONESIA

Ade Dilaruri, Ira Rahmawati


DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1132

Abstract


Background: COVID-19 is caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019nCoV) which was identified on 7 January 2020 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from the throat swab sample of a patient. This novel coronavirus is phylogenetically similar to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that caused SARS outbreak in 2002.

Objective: To describe a case of a COVID -19 patient in a hospital in Indonesia.

Case Report: A 55-year-old male was admitted to the Emergency Department of Arifin Achmad Hospital on 31 March 2020. He was transferred from a private hospital after three days of hospitalization. Previously, he came to another hospital complaining palpitation, cough, having difficulty of breathing, and intermittent fever. He then was advised to be admitted and tested for a COVID-19 test. At first, he did not admit to having traveled recently. After three days, the pharyngeal swab test was received confirming that he was contracted with COVID-19. The patient was then transferred to our hospital and hospitalized for ten days.

Discussion: The patient was fully recovered after ten days of treatment with antiviral drug namely Oseltamivir 75 mg orally twice a day and chloroquine phosphate 500 mg twice a day orally. The combination of both drugs showed an immune-modulating activity which might increase its antiviral effects. Therefore, the use of this agent in COVID-19 patients might be worthwhile. During hospitalization, reducing patient anxiety was also one of our main goals as many studies has found that anxiety is associated with poor immune system.

Conclusion: This case report demonstrated the current situation in Indonesia where people become reluctant to fully disclose their symptoms or travel history to the health care workers, which may put many others on the risk of being transmitted with the virus. Although the proven efficacy of chloroquine is still lacking, it has become the favorable choice at this moment as indicated in our study. Reducing the patient’s anxiety towards the disease may help to speed the patient’s recovery. Also, we need to educate public that COVID-19 might be a life-threatening disease but it is also a treatable disease.


Keywords


covid-19; chloroquine; oseltamivir; coronavirus; psychosocial support; Indonesia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahn, D. G., Shin, H. J., Kim, M. H., Lee, S., Kim, H. S., Myoung, J., . . . Kim, S. J. (2020). Current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccines for novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30(3), 313-324. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2003.03011

Bhardwaj, A. K., & Agrawal, G. (2015). Concept and applications of psycho-immunity (defense against mental illness): Importance in mental health scenario. Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Researches (OJMR), 1(3), 6.

Chamberlain, S. R., Cavanagh, J., de Boer, P., Mondelli, V., Jones, D. N. C., Drevets, W. C., . . . Bullmore, E. T. (2019). Treatment-resistant depression and peripheral C-reactive protein. British Journal of Psychiatry, 214(1), 11-19. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2018.66

Chan, J. F.-W., Yuan, S., Kok, K.-H., To, K. K.-W., Chu, H., Yang, J., . . . Yuen, K.-Y. (2020). A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet, 395(10223), 514-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9

Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., . . . Zhang, L. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet, 395(10223), 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30211-7

Cortegiani, A., Ingoglia, G., Ippolito, M., Giarratano, A., & Einav, S. (2020). A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Journal of Critical Care. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005

Depoux, A., Martin, S., Karafillakis, E., Bsd, R. P., Wilder-Smith, A., & Larson, H. (2020). The pandemic of social media panic travels faster than the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Travel Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa031

Gorbalenya, A. E., Baker, S. C., Baric, R. S., de Groot, R. J., Drosten, C., Gulyaeva, A. A., . . . Ziebuhr, J. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses – a statement of the Coronavirus study group. BioRxiv, 2020.2002.2007.937862. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.07.937862

Guan, W.-j., Liang, W.-h., Zhao, Y., Liang, H.-r., Chen, Z.-s., Li, Y.-m., . . . He, J.-x. (2020). Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A nationwide analysis. European Respiratory Journal, 2000547. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00547-2020

Gunawan, J., Juthamanee, S., & Aungsuroch, Y. (2020). Current mental health Issues in theeEra of Covid-19. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102103-102103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102103

Holshue, M. L., DeBolt, C., Lindquist, S., Lofy, K. H., Wiesman, J., Bruce, H., . . . Pillai, S. K. (2020). First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(10), 929-936. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa2001191

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., . . . Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet, 395(10223), 497-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30183-5

Jin, Y., Yang, H., Ji, W., Wu, W., & Chen, S. (2020). Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of COVID-19. 12(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040372

Lai, C. C., Liu, Y. H., Wang, C. Y., Wang, Y. H., Hsueh, S. C., Yen, M. Y., . . . Hsueh, P. R. (2020). Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012

Larson, H. J. (2018). The biggest pandemic risk? Viral misinformation. Nature, 562(7727), 309. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-07034-4

Liu, P., Chen, W., & Chen, J.-P. (2019). Viral metagenomics revealed sendai virus and coronavirus infection of Malayan Pangolins (Manis javanica). Viruses, 11(11), 979. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110979

Lutgendorf, S. K., Weinrib, A. Z., Penedo, F., Russell, D., DeGeest, K., Costanzo, E. S., . . . Lubaroff, D. M. (2008). Interleukin-6, cortisol, and depressive symptoms in ovarian cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26(29), 4820-4827. https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2007.14.1978

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. (2020). Infeksi emerging: Media informasi resmi terkini penyakit infeksi emerging [Emerging infections: The latest official information media for emerging infectious diseases]. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

Paton, N. I., Lee, L., Xu, Y., Ooi, E. E., Cheung, Y. B., Archuleta, S., . . . Wilder-Smith, A. (2011). Chloroquine for influenza prevention: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Lancet Infectious Disease, 11(9), 677-683. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(11)70065-2

Rahmawati, I., & Pertami, S. B. (2019). HIV screening test in a newly diagnosed TB patient: A case study. International Journal of Nursing and Health Services (IJNHS), 2(4), 198-204.

Rubin, E. J., Baden, L. R., & Morrissey, S. (2020). Audio interview: Caring for patients with Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(16), e50. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejme2011242

Sanders, J. M., Monogue, M. L., Jodlowski, T. Z., & Cutrell, J. B. (2020). Pharmacologic treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. JAMA. https://10.1001/jama.2020.6019

Savarino, A., Di Trani, L., Donatelli, I., Cauda, R., & Cassone, A. (2006). New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine. Lancet Infectious Disease, 6(2), 67-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(06)70361-9

Singh, A. K., Singh, A., Shaikh, A., Singh, R., & Misra, A. (2020). Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes: A systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(3), 241-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.011

Wang, B., Li, R., Lu, Z., & Huang, Y. (2020a). Does comorbidity increase the risk of patients with COVID-19: evidence from meta-analysis. Aging (Albany NY), 12. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103000

Wang, M., Cao, R., Zhang, L., Yang, X., Liu, J., Xu, M., . . . Hu, Z. (2020b). Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. 30(3), 269-271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0

World Health Organization. (2020). Novel coronavirus (2019 nCoV) situation report - 85. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200414-sitrep-85-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=7b8629bb_4

Yan, Y., Zou, Z., Sun, Y., Li, X., Xu, K. F., Wei, Y., . . . Jiang, C. (2013). Anti-malaria drug chloroquine is highly effective in treating avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in an animal model. Cell Research, 23(2), 300-302. https://doi.org/10.1038/cr.2012.165

Yazdany, J., & Kim, A. H. J. (2020). Use of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine during the COVID-19 pandemic: What Every clinician should know. Annals of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.7326/m20-1334

Zhou, P., Yang, X. L., Wang, X. G., Hu, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, W., . . . Shi, Z. L. (2020). A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature, 579(7798), 270-273. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Ade Dilaruri, Ira Rahmawati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.