Mei Rianita Elfrida Sinaga, Megah Andriany, Artika Nurrahima

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1098


Background: Life in prison may cause negative feelings and thoughts which triggers depression for female inmates. This results in difficulty in finding purpose in life and loss of interest or motivation. Group-based hope intervention seems to be effective in decreasing depression, but it has not yet been applied in female inmates in a prison.

Objective: To determine the effect of group-based hope intervention on depression level in female inmates.

Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental study with pre-test post-test and control group design. Eighty-eight participants were selected using proportionate stratified random sampling, with 44 assigned into intervention and control groups. Data were collected from September to November 2019.  The level of depression was measured using Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used for data analyses.

Results: Both group-based hope intervention in the intervention group and routine intervention in the control group has a significant effect on depression level (p<.01). However, further analysis showed that the group-based hope intervention was much more effective than the routine group in decreasing depression level in female inmates (p<.01).

Conclusion: Group-based hope intervention is effective in lowering the depression in female inmates. Therefore, this therapy can be used as a valuable intervention in nursing practice, especially in a correctional setting.


female inmates; depression; hope intervention

Full Text:



Ahmad, A., & Mazlan, N. H. (2014). Stress and depression: A comparison study between men and women inmates in Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(2), 153-160.

Almost, J., Gifford, W. A., Doran, D., Ogilvie, L., Miller, C., Rose, D. N., & Squires, M. (2013). Correctional nursing: A study protocol to develop an educational intervention to optimize nursing practice in a unique context. Implementation Science, 8(1), 71. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-71

Anderson, D. (2007). Multicultural group work: A force for developing and healing. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 32(3), 224-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/01933920701431537

Augustin, A., & Retnowati, S. (2012). Intervensi harapan bagi para relawan penyintas lahar dingin merapi [Hopeful interventions for Merapi cold lava survivors]. Yogyakarta: Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Beck, A. T. (2013). Depression. New York: The Guilford Press.

Beyen, T. K., Dadi, A. F., Dachew, B. A., Muluneh, N. Y., & Bisetegn, T. A. (2017). More than eight in every nineteen inmates were living with depression at prisons of Northwest Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, a cross sectional study design. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-1179-9

Brown, L. D., Tang, X., & Hollman, R. L. (2014). The structure of social exchange in self-help support groups: Development of a measure. American Journal of Community Psychology, 53(1-2), 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-013-9621-3

Cabeldue, M., Blackburn, A., & Mullings, J. L. (2019). Mental health among incarcerated women: An examination of factors impacting depression and PTSD symptomology. Women & Criminal Justice, 29(1), 52-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/08974454.2018.1433099

Cheavens, J. S., Feldman, D. B., Gum, A., Michael, S. T., & Snyder, C. R. (2006). Hope therapy in a community sample: A pilot investigation. Social Indicators Research, 77(1), 61-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11205-005-5553-0

Chen, Y.-S., Lai, Y.-L., & Lin, C.-Y. (2014). The impact of prison adjustment among women offenders: A Taiwanese perspective. The Prison Journal, 94(1), 7-29. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885513512083

Covington, S. S. (2003). A woman’s journey home : challenges for female offenders. In J. Travis & M. Waul (Eds.), Prisoners once removed: The impact of incarceration and reentry on children, families, and communities. Washington DC: Urban Institute.

Cutcliffe, J., & Herth, K. (2002). The concept of hope in nursing 2: hope and mental health nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 11(13), 885-893. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2002.11.18.10578

Directorate General of Corrections. (2018). Technical implementation report. Retrieved from http://smslap.ditjenpas.go.id

Edwards, L. M., Rand, K. L., Lopez, S. J., & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Understanding hope: a review of measurement and construct validity research. In A. D. Ong & M. H. M. V. Dulmen (Eds.), Oxford handbook of methods in positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Farzadegan, L., Mahmoodabadi, H. Z., & Nasirian, M. (2016). The efficacy of hope therapy on the elderly depression in Mehriz day care centers. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 5(5), 329-334.

Fazel, S., & Danesh, J. (2002). Serious mental disorder in 23 000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys. The Lancet, 359(9306), 545-550. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07740-1

Fitriana, Q. A. y., & Hadjam, M. N. R. (2016). Meraih hidup bermakna: Logoterapi untuk menurunkan depresi pada perempuan korban KDRT [Achieve a meaningful life: Logotherapy to reduce depression in women victims of domestic violence]. Gadjah Mada Journal of Professional Psychology (GamaJPP), 2(1), 26-36. https://doi.org/10.22146/gamajpp.32315

Goyal, S. K., Singh, P., Gargi, P. D., Goyal, S., & Garg, A. (2011). Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(3), 366-370. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.120562

Gunter, T. D. (2004). Incarcerated women and depression: A primer for the primary care provider. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association (1972), 59(2), 107-112.

Herth, K. (1995). Engendering hope in the chronically and terminally ill: Nursing interventions. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®, 12(5), 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/104990919501200510

Herth, K. A. (2001). Development and implementation of a hope intervention program. Oncology Nursing Forum, 28(6), 1009-1016.

Jodi, T. R. (2016). Gambaran tingkat depresi narapidana di lembaga pemasyarakatan wanita kelas IIA Bulu Semarang [A description of the level of depression of prisoners in class IIA Bulu correctional facilities in Semarang]. (Mini Thesis), Universitas Diponegoro, Samarang.

Joffres, M., Jaramillo, A., Dickinson, J., Lewin, G., Pottie, K., Shaw, E., . . . Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health, C. (2013). Recommendations on screening for depression in adults. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 185(9), 775-782. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.130634

Kaloeti, D. V. S., Rahmandani, A., Salma, S., La Kahija, Y. F., & Sakti, H. (2018). Gambaran depresi warga binaan pemasyarakatan X [Description of depression in prisoners of correctional facilities X]. Jurnal Psikologi, 13(2), 115-119.

Kamoyo, J. M., Barchok, H. K., Mburugu, B. M., & Nyaga, V. K. (2015). Effects of imprisonment on depression among female inmates in selected prison in Kenya. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(16), 55–60.

KhalediSardashti, F., Ghazavi, Z., Keshani, F., & Smaeilzadeh, M. (2018). Effect of hope therapy on the mood status of patients with diabetes. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 23(4), 281. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR

Machdi, R. (2013). Bagaimana hidup saya setelah ini? Aspirasi masa depan narapidana ditinjau dari perspektif kepemudaan [How is my life after this? the prisoner's future aspirations viewed from a youth perspective]. Jurnal Studi Pemuda, 2(1), 63-74.

Majekodunmi, O. E., Obadeji, A., Oluwole, L. O., & Oyelami, R. O. (2017). Depression in prison population: Demographic and clinical predictors. Journal of Forensic Science and Medicine, 3(3), 122. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfsm.jfsm

Maunder, L., & Cameron, L. (2013). Depression and low mood for people in prison: A self help guide. Retrieved from www.penninecare.nhs.uk

Morgan, R. D., & Winterowd, C. L. (2002). Interpersonal process-oriented group psychotherapy with offender populations. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 46(4), 466-482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624x02464008

Nedderman, A. B., Underwood, L. A., & Hardy, V. L. (2010). Spirituality group with female prisoners: Impacting hope. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 16(2), 117-132. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345809356526

Oyama, H., Ono, Y., Watanabe, N., Tanaka, E., Kudoh, S., Sakashita, T., . . . Nakamura, K. (2006). Local community intervention through depression screening and group activity for elderly suicide prevention. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60(1), 110-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/ j.1440-1819.2006.01468.x

Pettus-Davis, C., Veeh, C. A., Davis, M., & Tripodi, S. (2018). Gender differences in experiences of social support among men and women releasing from prison. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 35(9), 1161-1182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407517705492

Pinese, C. S. V., Furegato, A. R. F., & Santos, J. L. F. (2010). Demographic and clinical predictors of depressive symptoms among incarcerated women. Annals of General Psychiatry, 9(1), 34. https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-859x-9-34

Rahimipour, M., Shahgholian, N., & Yazdani, M. (2015). Effect of hope therapy on depression, anxiety, and stress among the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 20(6), 694. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-9066.170007

Retnowati, S., Ramadiyanti, D. W., Suciati, A. A., Sokang, Y. A., & Viola, H. (2015). Hope intervention against depression in the survivors of cold lava flood from Merapi mount. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 165, 170-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.619

Shekarabi-Ahari, G., Younesi, J., Borjali, A., & Ansari-Damavandi, S. (2012). The effectiveness of group hope therapy on hope and depression of mothers with children suffering from cancer in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention, 5(4), 183-188.

Shin, A. M., & Park, J. S. (2007). The effects of hope intervention on hope and depression of cancer patients staying at home. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 37(6), 994-1002. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan. 2007.37.6.994

Shrestha, G., Yadav, D. K., Sapkota, N., Baral, D., Yadav, B. K., Chakravartty, A., & Pokharel, P. K. (2017). Depression among inmates in a regional prison of eastern Nepal: A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 348. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1514-9

Siller, H., Renner, W., & Juen, B. (2017). Turkish migrant women with recurrent depression: Results from community-based self-help groups. Behavioral Medicine, 43(2), 129-141. https://doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2015.1111858

Sinaga, M. R. E., Andriany, M., Nurrahima, A., & W, R. H. (2019). Modul intervensi hope berbasis kelompok untuk menurunkan tingkat depresi warga binaan pemasyarakatan [Group-based hope intervention module to reduce depression in inmates]. Semarang: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249-275. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1304

Statistics Indonesia. (2017). Criminal statistics. Retrieved from https://bps.go.id/

Walmsley, R. (2015). World female imprisonment list: Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre trial detainees/ remand prisoners Retrieved from http://www.prisonstudies.org

Ward, D. B., & Wampler, K. S. (2010). Moving up the continuum of hope: Developing a theory of hope and understanding its influence in couples therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 36(2), 212-228. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2009.00173.x

Wiles, R., Cott, C., & Gibson, B. E. (2008). Hope, expectations and recovery from illness: A narrative synthesis of qualitative research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64(6), 564-573. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04815.x

Wilson, D. M., Marin, A., Bhardwaj, P., Lichlyter, B., Thurston, A., & Mohankumar, D. (2010). A hope intervention compared to friendly visitors as a technique to reduce depression among older nursing home residents. Nursing Research and Practice, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/676351


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Mei Rianita Sinaga, Megah Andriany, Artika Nurrahima

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/