Abd Risal, Andi Masyitha Irwan, Elly Lilianty Sjattar



Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been a global problem nowadays. To reduce its spread, Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC) have been provided. However, these interventions remain ineffective to discover new cases, as the stigma among health officers may exist.

Objective: To compare the stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS between VCT and PITC officers.

Methods: This was a descriptive comparative conducted in Makassar City, Parepare City and Sidenreng Rappang Regency, South Sulawesi Province Indonesia. There were 139 samples were selected using convenience sampling technique, which consisted of 66 VCT counseling officers and 73 PITC officers. The questionnaire from Health Policy Project in Thailand was used to measure the HIV/AIDS related-stigma. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and Mann Whitney test. 

Results: Findings show that there was a statistically significant difference in stigma between the group of VCT and PITC on people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), which the mean of stigma in the PITC group (73.07) was higher than the mean value in the VCT group (66.61). 

Conclusion: There is a significant difference in stigma between VCT and PITC officers towards PLWHA. It is suggested that PITC curriculum should be evaluated and supervision and monitoring in both VCT and PITC groups should be implemented regularly to reduce the stigma towards PLWHA.



Full Text:



Arrey, A. E., Bilsen, J., Lacor, P., & Deschepper, R. (2017). Perceptions of Stigma and Discrimination in Health Care Settings Towards Sub-Saharan African Migrant Women Living With Hiv/Aids in Belgium: a Qualitative Study. Journal of Biosocial Science, 49(5), 578–596.

Dharma, K. K. (2011). Metodologi penelitian keperawatan: Panduan melaksanakan dan menerapkan hasil penelitian. Jakarta: CV. Trans Info Media.

Geibel, S., Hossain, S. M., Pulerwitz, J., Sultana, N., Hossain, T., Roy, S., Yasmin, R. (2017). Stigma reduction training improves healthcare provider attitudes toward, and experiences of, young marginalized people in Bangladesh. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(2), S35-S44.

Health Policy Project. (2013). Measuring HIV stigma and discrimination among Health Facility Staff: comprehensive questionnaire: Futures Group, Health Policy Project Washington, DC.

Kennedy, C. E., Fonner, V. A., Sweat, M. D., Okero, F. A., Baggaley, R., & O’Reilly, K. R. (2013). Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review. AIDS and Behavior, 17(5), 1571-1590.

Kumar, N., Unnikrishnan, B., Thapar, R., Mithra, P., Kulkarni, V., Holla, R., . . . Kumar, A. (2017). Stigmatization and discrimination toward people living with HIV/AIDS in a coastal city of South India. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC), 16(3), 226-232.

Leidel, S., Leslie, G., Boldy, D., & Girdler, S. (2017). A comprehensive theoretical framework for the implementation and evaluation of opt‐out HIV testing. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice, 23(2), 301-307.

Mall, S., Middelkoop, K., Mark, D., Wood, R., & Bekker, L.-G. (2013). Changing patterns in HIV/AIDS stigma and uptake of voluntary counselling and testing services: the results of two consecutive community surveys conducted in the Western Cape, South Africa. AIDS care, 25(2), 194-201.

Mill, J., Harrowing, J., Rae, T., Richter, S., Minnie, K., Mbalinda, S., & Hepburn-Brown, C. (2013). Stigma in AIDS nursing care in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Qualitative health research, 23(8), 1066-1078.

Misir, P. (2013). HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction on VCT uptake: An adapted systematic review. Eastern Journal of Medicine, 18(4), 150-164.

MOH. (2012). Pedoman penghapusan stigma & diskriminasi bagi pengelolah program, petugas layanan kesehatan dan kader. Jakarta.

MOH. (2013). Penanggulangan HIV dan AIDS Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

MOH. (2014a). Estimasi dan proyeksi HIV/AIDS di Indonesia tahun 2011-2016. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

MOH. (2014b). Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 74 Tahun 2014 Tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Konseling dan Tes HIV. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

MOH. (2014c). Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 87 Tahun 2014

Tentang Pedoman Pengobatan Antiretroviral Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

MOH. (2015). Rencana Aksi Nasional Pengendalian HIV-AIDS Tahun 2015 - 2019. Ministry of the Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from

MOH. (2017). Health Profile of Indonesia Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.

Nyblade, L., Reddy, A., Mbote, D., Kraemer, J., Stockton, M., Kemunto, C., Dutta, A. (2017). The relationship between health worker stigma and uptake of HIV counseling and testing and utilization of non-HIV health services: the experience of male and female sex workers in Kenya. AIDS care, 29(11), 1364-1372.

Ogbo, F. A., Mogaji, A., Ogeleka, P., Agho, K. E., Idoko, J., Tule, T. Z., & Page, A. (2017). Assessment of provider-initiated HIV screening in Nigeria with sub-Saharan African comparison. BMC health services research, 17(1), 188.

Paryati, T., Raksanagara, A. S., & Afriandi, I. (2012). Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Stigma dan Diskriminasi kepada ODHA (Orang dengan HIV/AIDS) oleh petugas kesehatan: kajian literatur. from

Risal, A., & Gunawan, J. (2018). Men, Masculinities And Hiv/Aids In Indonesia. Belitung Nursing Journal, 4(1), 24-25.

Roura, M., Watson-Jones, D., Kahawita, T. M., Ferguson, L., & Ross, D. A. (2013). Provider-initiated testing and counselling programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of their operational implementation. Aids, 27(4), 617-626.

Silvestri, D. M., Modjarrad, K., Blevins, M. L., Halale, E., Vermund, S. H., & McKinzie, J. P. (2011). A comparison of HIV detection rates using routine opt-out provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling versus a standard of care approach in a rural African setting. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 56(1), e9.

Topp, S. M., Li, M. S., Chipukuma, J. M., Chiko, M. M., Matongo, E., Bolton‐Moore, C., & Reid, S. E. (2012). Does provider‐initiated counselling and testing (PITC) strengthen early diagnosis and treatment initiation? Results from an analysis of an urban cohort of HIV‐positive patients in Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 15(2), 17352.

UNAIDS. (2017). UNAIDS data 2017. Retrieved from Geneva, Switzerland:

Van Dyk, A. C. (2013). Client-initiated, provider-initiated, or self-testing for HIV: what do South Africans prefer? Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 24(6), e45-e56.

Wagner, A. C., Girard, T., McShane, K. E., Margolese, S., & Hart, T. A. (2017). HIV-related stigma and overlapping stigmas towards people living with HIV among health care trainees in Canada. AIDS Education and Prevention, 29(4), 364-376.

Wagner, A. C., Hart, T. A., McShane, K. E., Margolese, S., & Girard, T. A. (2014). Health care provider attitudes and beliefs about people living with HIV: Initial validation of the health care provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale (HPASS). AIDS and Behavior, 18(12), 2397-2408.

Wanyenze, R. K., Kyaddondo, D., Kinsman, J., Makumbi, F., Colebunders, R., & Hardon, A. (2013). Client-provider interactions in provider-initiated and voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Uganda. BMC Health Serv Res, 13(1), 423.

WHO. (2009). HIV counselling handbook for the Asia-Pacific: World Health Organization.

WHO. (2016). Global Summary Web4. Retrieved from

Wodajo, B. S., Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G., & Akpor, O. A. (2017). Stigma and discrimination within the Ethiopian health care settings: Views of inpatients living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. African journal of primary health care & family medicine, 9(1), 1-6.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Belitung Nursing Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.